Posted 2017-11-18 7:06 AM (#123687) Subject: The Ten Hallmarks of Cancer
Location: Houston, TX
The Ten Hallmarks of Cancer
1. Sustained proliferation: Cancer cells multiply out of control by creating proteins that encourage their explosive growth.
2. Insensitivity to antigrowth signals: Cancer cells disarm the processes the body uses to put the brakes on unwanted cell division.
3. Evasion of apoptosis (also known as cell suicide): Normal cells self-destruct when they detect an error (mutation) that cannot be repaired, but cancer cells thrive despite these errors.
4. Limitless replicative potential: Normal cells die after a certain number of divisions. Conversely, cancer cells are immortal.
5. Sustained angiogenesis (development of blood supply): Cancer cells are able to orchestrate the creation of new blood vessels to supply them with the oxygen and nutrients they need to grow.
6. Ability to metastasize: Cancer cells can spread to other sites in the body where space, oxygen, and nutrients are more plentiful.
7. Reprogramming of energy metabolism (known as the Warburg effect): Cancer cells alter their method of energy production and increase their metabolic rate in order to sustain rapid growth.
8. Avoidance of immune destruction: Cancer cells suppress the function of key immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, while also evading immune surveillance systems.
9. Tumor-promoting inflammation: Tumors activate an inflamatory response that can increase their access to growth factors and blood supply.
10. Genome instability and mutation: Almost all cancer cells have defects in their ability to repair DNA, allowing the reproduction of mutated cells.
angiogenesis: the development of new blood vessels.
metabolism: the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
inflammation: a localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection.
mutation: the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes.
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